In 1949 the Institute of Gas Use in Public Utilities and Industry was established within the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, since 1963 it has been called the Gas Institute of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, and since 1994 the Gas Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
For different years the institute was headed by prominent scientists:
The establishment of the Institute was due to significant development in the late 1940s of the gas industry, construction and operation of main gas pipelines, the use of natural gas as fuel and raw materials in many sectors of the economy and the need to address common problems of gas supply and gas use.
Throughout its activities, the Institute combines basic research with applied research. Fundamental research was performed in the field of thermodynamics of hydrocarbon systems, thermochemistry, applied combustion theory, torch theory, heat exchange in furnaces, low-temperature heat exchange, dynamics of gas transport systems, techniques and technologies of processes in the fluidized bed, hydrocarbon conversion catalysts, as well as in the field of ecology. The fundamental research of the Institute, which was and is being carried out at this time, is purposeful nature.
Academician M.M. Dobrokhotov defined the style of his work as follows: “The institute is academic, and we must give a theory applicable to engineers.” This style is the basis of the Institute’s work and is still preserved.
The main achievements in the field of basic research during the formation and development of the Institute include the following:
- — creation of fundamental principles of metallurgical heat engineering and technology, technology of coke-free metallurgy (acad. M.M. Dobrokhotov, 1940–1960);
- — development of processes of heat treatment and high-speed heating of steels (acad. V.F. Kopytov, 1950–1970);
- — development of thermodynamic cycles of hydrocarbon transformation and basics of methane liquefaction technology (prof. O.P. Klymenko, 1950–1970);
- — development of the theory of radiant heat transfer in flare furnaces of glass production;
- — development of methods for modeling and calculation of gas transport systems (doctor of technical sciences M.O. Zhidkova, 1960–1980);
- — study of the mechanism of formation of nitrogen oxides during combustion of various fuels and development of methods for their reduction (prof. I.Ya. Sigal, 1960–1980);
- — development of the basics of technology for the production of carbon sorbents by steam-gas activation of coal in the “fluidized bed” (corresponding member K.E. Mahorin);
- — study of properties, development of methods of generation and creation of bases of technologies of use of plasma of mixes of hydrocarbon gases with air (acad. IM Karp, doctor of technical sciences S.V. Petrov, 1960–1990);
- — development of the basics of the theory and furnaces of indirect radiation heating of materials (prof. A.E. Yerinov, prof. BS Soroka, 1960-1990);
- — development of the theory of interaction of complex gas systems with oxides and metals and principles of technology of production of special metal powders (acad. B.I. Bondarenko, 1970–1990);
- — development of the theory of heat transfer and hydrodynamics of processes in a fluidized bed prof. Y.I. Khvastukhin);
- — development of state diagrams of multiphase oxide systems (prof. V.Ya. Shurkhal, 1960–1980).
Based on the results of these studies during the formation and development of the Institute successfully solved the problem of rational and efficient use of natural gas in industry and utilities and created new highly efficient technological processes of its use. Applied developments of the Institute at that time made a significant contribution to the improvement of technological processes in many industries. Many of them have not lost relevance to our time. Under the leadership of Acad. M.M. Dobrokhotova performed work on the use of natural gas in steel production. Scientific bases and methods of conversion of open-hearth furnaces from heating with a mixture of coke and blast furnace gases to fuel oil and natural gas were developed. These methods and equipment were introduced at many metallurgical plants of the country: Magnitogorsk and Makeyevka metallurgical plants, plants “Zaporizhstal”, Taganrog and name. Ilyich, factories Malyshev and Voroshilovgrad locomotive (I.M. Karp, K.O. Grebin). During these years, the Institute occupied a leading position in the USSR in the field of technology of reduction of metals, in particular, direct production of iron. The first in the USSR metallization plants in the mine furnace and in the fluidized bed reactor of the Institute were built in the 1960s at the Zaporizhstal plant (K.E Makhorin, V.E. Gasparyan, B.I. Bondarenko). Under the leadership of acad. V.F. Kopitov performed a significant amount of research on the processes of heating and thermochemical treatment of steels. Technologies for processing metals and materials, including sheet metal and electrical steels in special gaseous media have been developed. Under the leadership of prof. O.O. Sigov’s research was carried out and the technology of preheating of the charge in the process of agglomeration of iron ores was introduced (V.Ya. Shurhal). In the field of industrial heat engineering on the basis of the theory of heat exchange in flare furnaces new methods of intensification of glass smelting process were developed and introduced (Prof. MA Zakharikov).
Under the leadership of prof. O.P. Klimenko developed a study to study the thermophysical properties of hydrocarbons, purification and separation of gas mixtures, liquefaction of methane. Proposed by O.P. Klimenko single-flow cascade cycle in the process of liquefaction of methane is recognized by experts around the world and is used in all liquefaction plants. A number of installations for industrial preparation and separation of hydrocarbon gases have been developed and implemented.
PREPARATION, PROCESSING AND TRANSPORT OF HYDROCARBON GASES
The productivity of plant is 2.5–3 times higher than that of vertical plate absorbers of the same diameter. At its application capital expenses decrease, the possibility of effective work at considerable fluctuations of loadings is provided. Installed at Bilche-Volytsky and Bohorodchany underground gas storage facilities (O.I. Pyatnychko, T.K. Krushnevych).
Tubular column for separation of hydrocarbon gases. Designed to stabilize gas condensate and oil in gas condensate and oil fields. Combines mass and heat transfer processes. It allows, along with stable condensate or gasoline to obtain propane-butane and methane fractions, simplify the technology of stabilization of condensate and oil, reduce their cost.
Productivity is 4–6 t / h of unstable condensate at pressures up to 3.0 MPa. Introduced at the Druzhelyubiv gas condensate field of PJSC Shebelinkagazprom (O.I. Pyatnychko, T.K. Krushnevych).
Software system for modeling technologies of industrial preparation and processing of natural gas and oil “GazCondNafta”. The system provides calculated modeling of phase equilibria and thermophysical properties of hydrocarbon fluids in gas – liquid, gas – liquid – solid phase systems, in heterogeneous systems gas – condensate (oil) – mineralized water – methanol – glycols; material balance of gas condensate fields for the entire period of development; processes of two- and three-phase transportation, separation, throttling, mixing, ejection, compression, expanding, heat exchange, rectification, absorption of single-, two-, three- and four-phase mixtures (drying, regeneration of glycols and methanol, stabilization, liquefaction and fractionation of gases) . Limits of system use: 70 K
Use of hydrocarbon gases as motor fuel. Fuel equipment for conversion of motor vehicles to compressed natural gas has been developed. The equipment provides use of light metal cylinders with a working pressure of 20 MPa and a specific weight of 0.7 kg per 1 liter of volume. A batch of small-sized automobile gas-filling compressor stations (MAGNKS) was designed and manufactured. They are installed in car fleets and collective garages and provide refueling for up to 45 cars per day with compressed natural or mine methane. The compressor is driven by a gas internal combustion engine. Development is implemented at coal industry enterprises and a number of fleets. By a resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR in October 1986, the Institute was designated the country’s main enterprise on the use of compressed natural gas in motor vehicles. The complex of works “Theoretical bases and technologies of production and use on transport of alternative motor fuels on the basis of mineral resources of Ukraine”, was awarded the State prize of Ukraine in the field of science and technology for 1995.
Systems for conversion of diesel power plants to gas-diesel with electronic and mechanical speed regulators have been developed. At the same time, due to the use of natural or associated petroleum gas, the consumption of diesel fuel is reduced by 80 %, the engine life of the engine is increased and the toxicity of the exhaust gases is reduced. Under a contract with Vietsovpetro, about 50 DGRA-500/500 and DG-72 diesel generators have been converted from diesel fuel to associated petroleum gas on offshore oil and gas production platforms in Vietnam. On the offshore platforms of Chernomornaftogaz, 24 gas-diesel generators ASDA-100, ASDA-200 were re-equipped and put into operation (O.I. Pyatnichko, V.S. Verbovsky, S.B. Kubenko).
Liquefaction of natural gas. Thermodynamic substantiation and technological schemes of regasification of liquefied natural gas with electricity generation at the LNG terminal based on the Rankin cycle have been developed. Implementation of development at the LNG terminal with a capacity of 10 billion m3 of natural gas per year will allow to fully meet the terminal’s own needs and supply the external consumer with 700 GWh of useful electricity per year without additional fuel costs. Thermodynamic analysis of natural gas liquefaction in a medium pressure throttle cycle with an ethane refrigeration cycle is performed. The optimal parameters of the refrigeration cycle and installation in general are obtained from the point of view of minimizing the consolidated energy costs. The installation can be included in the complex of natural gas preparation at separate fields and local gas networks. The scientific substantiation of the use of the pressure drop on the GDS for the production of liquefied natural gas and its further use as a universal fuel has been developed. The basic schemes of liquefaction of natural gas at GDS are developed and calculated (O.I. Pyatnychko, H.V. Zhuk, L.R. Onopa, S.P. Krushnevych).
Gas hydrates. For the first time in Ukraine an installation was created to study the formation of methane gas hydrates, as well as their visual and optical fixation. Artificial hydrates of carbon dioxide, methane and other components of natural gas, as well as preliminary results of thermophysical parameters of their formation and dissociation were obtained. The possibility of transporting natural gas from low-flow wells to the consumer in the form of gas hydrates has been studied. The influence of micro- and nanopowders of metal oxides as centers of heterogeneous crystallization on the parameters of methane hydrate formation process was studied for the first time. It is established that the use of tantalum oxide powders allows to increase the temperature of hydrate formation, which makes it possible to reduce energy consumption of technologies for transportation and storage of natural gas in the form of hydrates.
For the first time in Ukraine laboratory studies of the kinetic inhibitor of hydrate formation were performed and the thermodynamic parameters of hydrate formation were determined. The INHIBEX 501 inhibitor can be used in the gas production and gas transportation industries of Ukraine instead of imported toxic methanol (H.V. Zhuk, O.I. Pyatnychko, D.S. Fedorenko, V.T. Krushnevych).
For many years, research and development in the field of processing, transportation of natural gas and the use of hydrocarbons as motor fuels were carried out under the guidance and with the direct participation of the head of gas processing and transportation researches – Honored Worker of Science and Technology of Ukraine, winner of the State Prize of Ukraine. of Technology, Deputy Director of the Institute for Scientific Work, Ph.D. O.I. Pyatnychko.
THEORETICAL FUNDAMENTALS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF EFFICIENT USE OF NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY
For many years, the Institute has developed and implemented large-scale technologies and equipment for the efficient use of gaseous fuels, primarily natural gas, as well as blast furnace gas, coke oven gases and their mixtures in metallurgical units. Theoretical developments in the field of complex heat transfer in furnaces and zonal method of its calculations are performed. A set of researches in the field of energy-ecological optimization of fossil fuel combustion processes in heat engineering units has been performed, which includes CFD-modeling methods, solutions of a complex system of equations of chemical kinetics and gas dynamics. Computer software for numerical simulation of low-emission burners makes it possible to optimize their mode and design parameters using the principles of two-stage combustion and forced internal recirculation of combustion products. The efficiency of indirect radiative heating of metals using flat-flame burners is substantiated.
A comprehensive calculation methodology for determining more than 20 parameters of gaseous fuels of arbitrary composition has been created. Comprehensive information on gaseous fuel as a marketable product can be obtained by calculation using a special computer program without conducting experimental studies (measurements), including directly in the conditions of gas networks, taking into account energy, environmental, climatic and safety properties. This made it possible to make proposals for the “Technical Regulation for Natural Gas”, created by the Ministry of Energy and Coal – NJSC Naftogaz of Ukraine (B.S. Soroka).
Well-known applied works include the development of original burners for heating of methodical and chamber furnaces, creation of effective recuperative and regenerative utilizers of heat of exhaust gases, stands for heating of steel ladles with a capacity from units to hundreds of tons of steel, equipped with recuperators, improvement of systems of gas combustion of gas in rotary furnaces.
Recuperators of different types and purposes developed at the Institute are characterized by increased heat transfer intensity, compactness, ease of installation, reliability in operation. They make it possible to reduce fuel consumption by 20-30 %.
The method of indirect radiative heating of the metal saves 25% of fuel, increasing the productivity of furnaces. It is widely implemented at metallurgical plants in Ukraine, CIS countries, as well as in Hungary, Bulgaria, Algeria (A.E. Yerinov, B.S. Soroka)
The pass-through furnace of high-speed heating of a bar of a ball rolling mill is equipped with jet recuperators.
For the first time in Ukraine, the use of oxygen in a rolling furnace was tested (O.M. Zaivy).
TECHNOLOGIES OF PROTECTION OF THE AIR POOL FROM POLLUTION DURING COMBUSTION OF FUEL AT POWER PLANTS AND BOILER ROOMS
Neutralization of gas emissions in energetics. Since the 1960s, for the first time in the USSR under the leadership of professor I.Ya. Sigal studied the mechanisms of formation of nitrogen oxides in the combustion processes of boilers. Technologies for reducing NOx formation have been developed and implemented, in particular recirculation, stage combustion and two-stage combustion burners.
At more than 100 boilers of power plants (including boilers of power units of 200 and 300 MW) and more than 300 boilers of powerful boilers rooms, measures have been implemented to reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides by 40-50 % (in Ukraine, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, Bulgaria, etc.). More More than 2200 staged combustion burners have been introduced.
Technologies for reducing NOX emissions by powerful boilers by supplying ballast to the combustion zone in a mixture with fuel are being developed and partially implemented (I.Ya. Sigal, O.M. Duboshiy, A.V. Smihula).
Neutralization of hazardous pollutants. The Institute is working to identify and neutralize of particularly hazardous pollutants, in particular those related to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (V.V. Chetverikov). Technologies and equipment based on the effect of flame stabilization in a low-cone channel are developed, for example, to determine the speed of flame propagation of gas mixtures (M.O. Hurevich).
Thermocatalytic reactor (TCR) The reactors are designed to purify gaseous process emissions containing toxic organic compounds.
Productivity of TKR – 3, 5, 10, 25 and 50 thousand m3/hour. When the emission content exceeds 6 g/m3 of organic impurities, the purification process can be autothermally without fuel gas consumption. The degree of purification is 99 % (G.S. Marchenko, V.O. Makarenko).
Boilers 4-10 MW with double-light screen and floor slot burners such as TVG and KVG About 8,500 TVG and KVG boilers with a total thermal capacity of more than 60 GW have been developed and implemented. The boilers have been in operation in Ukraine and in the former USSR for over 40 years due to their high reliability with relatively low NOX emissions (I.Ya. Sigal, Ye.M. Lavrentsov, E.P. Dombrovska).
THEORETICAL FUNDAMENTALS AND FUNDAMENTALS OF TECHNOLOGIES OF MATERIAL PROCESSING IN FLUIDIZED BED
Processing of dispersed materials. With the use of technologies and equipment for the implementation of processes in the fluidized bed at the Institute developed on the processing of dispersed materials for various purposes.
The developed installations are used in the processing of mineral fertilizers, in the production of precision steel casting on smelted models, in the production of expanded perlite, sorbents, etc. The technology of production of carbon sorbents by steam-gas activation of anthracite in a “fluidized bed” is developed. For the implementation of this development, the staff of the Institute K.E. Mahorin and A.M. Glukhomanyuk as a member of the author’s team were awarded the prize of the Council of Ministers of the USSR “For the development and industrial implementation of a new closed resource-saving system of industrial water supply and waste processing Pervomaisky industrial hub” (1986).
Production of porous aggregates and dry construction mixtures. Energy-saving technology with fluidized bed devices for the production of a new non-flammable porous material – siopore (Y.I. Khvastukhin, V.V. Sobchenko) has been developed and implemented. The technology of production of hollow microspheres was created and for the first time in Ukraine a line for their production with a capacity of 0.5 m3/h was put into experimental and industrial operation in the city of Myronivka, Kyiv region on the production of Eurosvit LLC (K.P. Kostogryz, A.M. Tsyupyashuk). Energy-saving technology and sand drying devices for dry construction mixtures have been developed, which was implemented with the participation of a partner organization at the production facilities of Henkel Bautechnik (Ukraine) (V.M. Orlyk, S.M. Roman, K.P. Kostogryz, V.V. Sobchenko).
Immersed gas combustion in mineral melts The method and equipment for this process are widely used. The developed converter and burners have no world analogues. Used in mineral wool production in Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, installation of neutralization of hazardous substances (pesticides), production of glass and cement. The melting bubble installation with a capacity of 5 t/h was made to order of the Saint-Gobain-Isover company (France) (V.M. Olabin, O.B. Maksimuk).
THERMOGASOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES IN METALLURGY
These technologies are based on fundamental studies of thermodynamics and kinetics of heterogeneous processes involving complex gas systems such as C – H – O– [N] –MeO – Me (acad. B.I Bondarenko, Ph.D. V.K Bezugly ). The combination of theoretical and experimental research has made it possible to develop a number of new technologies.
For the first time in the USSR, technology and equipment for the production of electrochemically active iron powders with ultrahigh ability to form for industrial production of lamelles iron-nickel batteries (NPO “Istochnik”, St. Petersburg; NPK “Impulse”, Velikiye Luki, Russia; DAZ, Jizzakh, Uzbekistan) (acad. B.I. Bondarenko, Ph.D. V.S. Stiskin, M.G.Krysov).
The technology of obtaining electrochemically active nickel powders in a fluidized bed for electrolyzers of nickel production (NGMK, Norilsk, Russia) (Ph.D. V.F. Pekach, Ph.D. O.M. Svyatenko) has been introduced.
The selective reduction of oxidized nickel ores has been improved by replacing the products of oil conversion with the product of coal gasification in Winkler fluidized bed reactors with higher thermodynamic efficiency (Che Guevara Nickel Plant, Moa Bay, Cuba) (acad. B.I. Bondarenko).
A fundamentally new class of technologies has been developed – reduction of metals in thermobarothermally pulsating modes. 4 industrial furnaces for iron recovery from rolling scale were built and a 25% increase in productivity was achieved (BZPM, Brovary) (Ph.D. O.M. Svyatenko). This method was also used in the development of technology for the reduction of iron and titanium from ilmenite (VGMK, Vilnohirsk) (Ph.D. I.I. Yakubovich).
Conveyor furnaces for oxidation of iron products in a mixed atmosphere of water vapor and combustion products were created together with KB BZPM. Products intended for work in aggressive environments of livestock farms, poultry farms, etc. are subject to oxidation. (Ph.D. O.M. Svyatenko, Ph.D. O.M. Krivenko).
At the Novolipetsk Metallurgical Plant has mastered imported equipment and improved the technology of high-speed annealing of electrical sheet steel in tower and through furnaces (Ph.D. K.V. Dniprenko, V.S. Mogilchenko, L.O. Ivanova).
By order of the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR a program was developed according to which a large amount of theoretical and experimental research of furnaces with stepping beams LOI was performed. It has been proven that the main reason for the impossibility of achieving contract performance was that the furnaces with stepping beams work as mixing reactors, and not as displacement reactors, as expected by German designers. This work forced the furnace supplier Manesmann Demag to pay the USSR Ministry of Agriculture a contractual penalty of 12 million marks.
The world’s first gas-tight conveyor furnaces SKN-8 and SKZ-6 were created, which made it possible to reduce the specific consumption of hydrogen and / or protective atmospheres by 2–2.5 times in comparison with well-known foreign furnaces (Yamazaka Denki, Elino). The furnaces were introduced at the Brovary Powder Metallurgy Plant, PJSC Severstal (Cherepovets), Sulina Metallurgical Plant, Sibelectro-Stal Plant (Krasnoyarsk, Russia), Alaverd Copper Plant (Armenia), and HOPM (Sofia, Sofia). (acad. B.I. Bondarenko, Ph.D. V.F. Pekach, Ph.D. M.P. Kurgansky).
Technology and equipment for the production of high quality iron powders for AvtoVAZ, KamAZ and the Ministry of Defense have been developed. This made it possible to master the production of sintered products of the highest (seventh) category of complexity, to abandon the import of quality powders from Sweden with an economy of $ 65 million. USA (acad. B.I. Bondarenko, Ph.D. V.F. Pekach, Ph.D. M.P. Kurgansky).
OTHER IMPLEMENTED TECHNOLOGIES
An incinerator has been developed – a furnace for the disposal of hospital waste on site, near facilities. A distinctive feature of incinerators is the complete disinfection of harmful substances and their high energy efficiency due to the increase in process temperature and the use of secondary heat (V.V. Alekseenko, O.B. Sezonenko).
Heating systems of industrial furnaces with regenerative burners
Regenerative burners provide deep utilization of heat of combustion products by heating of combustion air in the small-sized built-in regenerator. Air heating is limited only by the fire resistance of the nozzle materials. The heating system based on regenerative burners makes it possible to achieve 60 percent fuel savings. They are implemented on aluminum smelting furnaces and can be used on other types of industrial furnaces (V.V. Alekseenko, O.B. Sezonenko, V.Y. Nikitin).
Efficient low-capacity kilns for firing ceramic bricks. Developed and implemented a small inertial modular small tunnel kiln with a length of 24 m for firing ceramics, which can be used in the construction of brick mini-factories with a capacity of 1.5 to 6.0 million pieces. conditional bricks per year (R.A. Pilipenko).
Fundamentally new high-precision instruments for measuring the dew point of natural and industrial gases have been created. The devices were tested at the gas industry enterprises of Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan and were included in the register of these devices (V.T. Krushnevich).
Fundamentally new high-precision instruments for measuring the dew point of natural and industrial gases have been created. The devices were tested at the gas industry enterprises of Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan and were included in the register of these devices (V.T. Krushnevich, etc.).
NEW DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
In the 1990s, there were changes in the activities of the Institute. The number of employees has decreased by more than 3 times. Due to the decline in industrial production, the number of orders for scientific products decreased also. On the basis of the Institute small enterprises emerged, through which mainly the implementation of developments took place.
There have been changes in the direction of development in accordance with changes in the fuel situation and in the structure of social production. The main core remained the development of energy-saving technologies for the use of energy resources, at the same time the topic was supplemented by new areas: research in energy materials science, nanotechnology, expanding the energy resource base, autonomous electricity production, replacing natural gas with alternative fuels using.
Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. The Institute has developed nanotechnologies for the production of carbon nanomaterials based on the use of complex gas systems such as products of exothermic conversion of hydrocarbons. A semi-industrial site for the production of thermally expanded graphite (TRG) and pilot plant for the production of carbon nanotubes are created, developed technologies for obtaining nanofluids for energetics, based on carbon nanomaterials and aluminosilicates of Ukrainian origin.
Production and application of thermally expanded graphite. The technology of production of high quality thermoexpanded graphite which is reached at the expense of the patented technology of splitting of graphite in a core of a flame torch is developed and tested. TRG can be used as an effective absorber of organic matter, primarily oil and petroleum products. The absorption capacity of TRG relative to oil reaches 70 kg of oil per 1 kg of TRG. Thermoexpanded graphite is still one of the effective absorbers of gasoline, which delays its impregnation into the soil. Gasoline capacity reaches 30-40 kg per 1 kg of TRG. The Institute has developed technologies for the extraction of absorbed petroleum products and technologies for regeneration and multiple reuse of adsorbent. Obtained TRG is also a raw material for the production of graphene (FLG-Few Layers Graphene). The bulk density of TRG is 3-5 g/dm3, the productivity of the semi-industrial plant is 35 kg/h (O.P. Kozhan, Ye.V. Strativnov, O.I. Khovavko) .
Obtaining high-purity graphite. The largest pilot plant in Europe with an electrothermal fluidized bed for the production of high-temperature hydrogen and the application of pyrocarbon and pyrographite coatings for the needs of special metallurgy and nuclear energy has been created. Based on the experience of operation of this installation, for the first time in the world a unique experimental installation with electrothermal fluidized bed (ETFB) was created, on which the processing temperature of graphite was 3000 0С.
The fundamental possibility of obtaining high-purity graphite by high-temperature processing in ETCS is proved. This technology is in the process of transfer to the company that supplies Ukrainian graphite for export (O.P. Kozhan, V.M. Dmitriev, K.V. Simeiko).
Seals for nuclear reactors made of thermally expanded graphite and nanotubes. Scientific and technological bases for the creation of superstable elastic graphite seals reinforced with carbon nanotubes for nuclear reactors have been developed. The seals are intended to replace the existing accident-hazardous nickel O-rings, the use of which led to accidents at the Novo-Voronezh and Khmelnitsky NPPs. It was also necessary to replace imported Russian graphite seals. Due to the reinforcement with carbon nanotubes of our own production, the seals developed at the Gas Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine are almost 30 % stronger than the imported ones. This technology is patented. The results of the developments were transferred to SENEС «Energoatom» on a commercial basis (O.P. Kozhan, V.M. Dmitriev, O.M. Svyatenko).
Nanofluids. Based on the use of carbon nanomaterials of own production and aluminosilicate nanomaterials from Ukrainian raw materials for the first time in Ukraine created scientific principles for the production and use of nanofluids, mainly for use in energy. Scientific bases of research on nanofluids are developed and computerized installations for research of thermophysical characteristics of nanofluids, first of all, critical heat streams are created. Such studies are of great importance for the development of cooling technologies for overheated and energy-overloaded equipment, primarily nuclear reactor vessels. Interesting results were also obtained when using nanofluids in thermosyphons for cooling conventional and power electronics (V.N. Moraru, S.V. Sydorenko, D.V. Komysh).
Energy efficient technologies for creating new materials. The technology of obtaining magnetically soft iron powders from Indian superconcentrates “blue dust” has been developed. The technology is based on the use of electrolytic hydrogen, which has no trace of carbon dioxide. Complete regeneration and recirculation of hydrogen is provided. The production was built by the Gas Institute under a turnkey contract with National Mineral Development Corp. (NMDC), Hyderabad, India, with the involvement of Indian partner Fluidterm Technology, Chennai (B.I. Bondarenko, E.P. Pokotylo, D.M. Fedorov).
SCIENTIFIC FUNDAMENTALS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF NATURAL GAS SUBSTITUTION BY ALTERNATIVE FUELS. WASTE DISPOSAL
Gasification of condensed fuels. Thermodynamic principles of mutual substitution of fuels of arbitrary composition with the use of the 2nd law of thermodynamics are created. On this basis, the possibilities of saving or overuse of the required energy when using the selected fuels, specific fuel consumption, specific emissions of NOX and СО2 per unit of useful heat are estimated.
The thermodynamic and thermochemical features of heterogeneous gasification processes of a wide range of condensed fuels have been studied theoretically and experimentally and the optimal gasification regimes have been determined. The composition and main fuel and energy characteristics of generator gas produced in the process of biofuel gasification are calculated. On this basis, the possibilities of expanding the resource base of energy due to deposits of local fuels (lignite) and waste have been identified.
The principles of choosing the technology of carbonaceous fuels gasification depending on the level of their metamorphism are established. The results were used in the creation of demonstration objects “gas generator – boiler” and “gas generator – forge furnace” at the enterprises of Ukraine: the plant “Tsentrolit” (Sumy), the Machine-Building Plant. Lepse (Zolotonosha).
For the first time in Ukraine the technology of gasification of biofuels using the reverse wave process has been developed. Created gas generators of periodic action are designed for gasification of biofuels, brown coal, waste. The operating complex with installed capacity of 2 MW provides partial replacement of natural gas on the boiler DE-25/14 of PJSC “Malinska Paper Factory Weidmann”.
The equipment has been in operation since 2013. Achieved reduction of gas consumption by 500 thousand m3/year (K.Ye. Pyanykh).
Use of gas from solid waste landfills. The technology of extraction of methane and carbon dioxide from biogas of municipal landfills was developed at the Gas Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and introduced in the USA. Received a US patent.
Technologies for biogas production and utilization at landfills in Kyiv, Boryspil, Brovary, Mykolayiv, Zhytomyr with the production of electricity with a total capacity of 6.5 MW have been developed and implemented. More than 70 million kWh of electricity were generated, natural gas savings amounted to 22 million m3. Payback of projects – 2 years. A project for landfill gas utilization of the Kamyanets-Podilsky landfill has been developed.
The implementation of the project will reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere and generate about 600 kW of electricity. The project envisages the creation of biomethane production from biogas by amine absorption, fire safety system based on carbon dioxide and greenhouse based on cogeneration heat (O.I. Pyatnichko, H.V. Zhuk, S.B. Kubenko, V.S. Verbovsky, S.P. Krushnevich).
Combustion of biofuels in powerful rotary kilns for inorganic materials and metal pellets firing. For the first time in the world the processes of biofuel combustion depending on its fractional composition and humidity were theoretically studied using mathematical and physical modeling. The research results were used in the creation and implementation of biofuel heating systems of powerful rotary kilns for inorganic materials and metal pellets to replace natural gas. Implemented on 7 rotary kilns at Vatutinsky and Zaporizhzhya refractories, plants “Arcelor Mittal Kryvyi Rih”, Poltava GOK and others. The total volume of natural gas substitution for biofuels is 70 million m3/year (I.M. Karp, K.Ye. Pyanykh).
Biogas combustion. Developed and implemented systems for preparation and combustion of biogas in industrial boilers, burners for separate and combined combustion of biogas with a capacity of up to 12 MW, flares installation for biogas utilization during repairs of gas-using equipment (I.Ya. Sigal, V.O. Kolchev, O.V. Marasin)
Together with the Institute of Electric Welding. Є.О. Paton was organized mass production of installations at the Biysk hardware-mechanical plant. The plants have been implemented at the following enterprises: Uralmash, Horlivka Mining Equipment Plant, Рeating for enameling heating pipes and others. A number of plasma generators have been developed, including supersonic ones (I.M. Karp, S.V. Petrov).
A high-efficiency gas generator of highly concentrated vacuum plasma has been developed and manufactured, which includes a plasma electron source, an anode unit and a power supply unit of the plasma generator.
The ion-vacuum spraying unit, developed at the Gas Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, was transferred under contract to Machine Tools Aids & Reconditioning, India (V.G. Nazarenko).
Thermodynamic analysis of gasification processes of carbonaceous raw materials using plasma technologies is performed.
A prototype of a hazardous waste processing plant using steam plasma (V.A. Zhovtyansky, V.M. Orlyk, Ye.I. Lelyukh, M.V. Yakimovich) is being creared.
A new solution of scientific and applied problem of increasing energy efficiency of district heating systems by improving the system of indicators of their current state, substantiation of replacement of traditional gas boilers with more energy efficient heat sources, application of complex parallel modernization of heat sources, heat networks and heat consumers connected to them. On this basis energy-efficient district heating schemes have been developed in the cities of Kryvyi Rih, Kropyvnytskyi, Svitlovodsk, Burshtyn, Luhansk, Alchevsk and others (Ye.Ye. Nikitin).
- — thermochemical processes and nanotechnologies;
- — technologies of alternative fuels;
- — gas technologies;
- — plasma processes and technologies;
- — protection of atmospheric air from pollution;
- — high-temperature heat and mass transfer;
- — thermal heterogeneous processes;
- — problems of industrial heat engineering.
The activities of the Institute in recent years have been carried out in accordance with the priority areas of research approved by the Presidium of the NAS of Ukraine:
- — development of scientific bases for improving the efficiency of natural gas and alternative heat carriers as a basis for creating new energy and resource-saving technologies;
- — research in the field of applied theory of combustion, thermodynamics, interphase heat and mass transfer and development on this basis of new thermal processes and equipment;
- — research on environmental protection in order to create scientific and technological bases for the protection of atmospheric air from pollution, thermal disposal of solid waste and especially hazardous substances and waste.
The Institute publishes a scientific and technical journal “Energy Technology and Resource Conservation”, which has the following sections: fuel and energy; energy saving technologies; thermophysical bases of energy processes; processing of raw materials and resource saving; waste cleaning and recycling; environmental protection; devices and equipment.
The Institute has a Center for Collective Use of Devices “Gas and Gas-Liquid Chromatography”, a scientific and organizational department, a research and production department, a scientific and technical library, a scientific and technical archive, and others.
The Institute has a specialized academic council D.26.225.01 for the defense of doctoral dissertations in the specialty 05.14.06 “Technical Thermophysics and Industrial Heat Power Engineering”.
Today the Institute is working at full capacity, has been certified in accordance with the new methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of scientific institutions of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Six of the eight departments were certified for the highest category A.
According to the results of the State certification of scientific institutions according to the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine from 17.06.2020 № 817 the institute is referred to the I qualification group.
The future development of the Institute is based on targeted basic and applied research and development with their subsequent implementation in industry.