Hydrates, or clathrates gas represent like ice compounds in which the gas molecules introduced into the molecular skeleton of the water. According to the US Geological Survey in 1999 in the world’s oceans are huge reserves of natural gas hydrates, which is the equivalent in order of magnitude to 1018-1019 m3 of methane.
Hydrate technologies compared with existing, are more energy efficient with the possibility to transport the natural gas, to separate a mixture of gases and liquids, to compress the gases to a high pressure, to concentrate aqueous solution, to produce and accumulate cold, dispose and store CO2. Their study is also important for solving the problems of development of methane deposits in hydrate state, in particular, in the Black Sea.
In order to study the processes of formation and dissociation of hydrates of hydrocarbon compounds which are part of natural gas was created hydration unit on the basis of hygrometer TOROS- 3-2 of own design, approved method for the determination of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of hydrates transformation process .
The device allows the study at an operating pressure of 25.0 MPa, in various gases, in the temperature range from -65 to + 20 °C with absolute error ± 0,5° C. For fixing the hydrated state (solid phase) reactor cooled to -40 °C by dry ice. Refrigeration cycle, drainage of gas and liquid, optical observation, photo and video fixation are organized.
With express- method were obtained hydrates of natural gas and carbon dioxide. On the basis of temperature changes P-T diagrams where made for the formation process natural gas and carbon dioxide hydrates . Also, a series of successful experiments in substitution of methane with carbon dioxide where carried out.
Positive results of experimental studies of the process of substitution in gas hydrates of methane with carbon dioxide confirmed the possibility of using this technology for the development of gas hydrate deposits for the conditions in the Black Sea. In the next few years we plan to create an innovative research and industrial equipment for transformation, transportation and regasification of natural gas in hydrate form.