The Gas Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine was founded under the National Academy of Sciences in 1949 and now forms part of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Department of Physicotechnical Problems of Power Engineering.
Academician Mykolay Dobrokhotov, a prominent metallurgist, was the Institute’s founder and its first director. Academician Viktor Kopytov who was the director of the Institute since 1952 to 1985 and academician Igor Karp – director since 1986 to 2002 contributed greatly to its formation and development. Academician Borys Bondarenko is headed heading the Institute since 2003.
At one’s own near 60-years history in the Institute have been fulfilled important scientific researches and significant developments in different brunches of industry. Below the short list of such developments.
In metallurgy under the direction of academician N. Dobrokhotov have been fulfilled developments for application of natural gas in steelmaking. The scientific fundamentals for converting of open-hearth furnaces from heating by coke-oven and blast-furnace gases and mazut on natural gas have been created. The Institute took leading position in the USSR in the field of metal reduction and especially of the direct iron production. The first in the USSR installations for metallization in the shaft furnace with fluidized bad of the Gas Institute construction have been built in 60-th at the “Zaporogstal” industrial complex.
The collaborators of the Institute took part in the development of largest in the world metallization revolving furnace. The works aimed at new technologies for steel making and casting development also have been fulfilled. Under the direction of academician V. Koputov the processes of steel heating and thermal-chemical treating have been investigated. On the bases of received results the technologies of metal and material treatment in special gaseous medium, including treatment of automobile-body and electric steel, have been created. It resulted to radical improvement of mentioned steel quality. The Institute took up a leading position in Ukraine and UIC in the field iron powders production (acad. B. Bondarenko at al.). Technology and equipment for the first in the USSR production of iron powders and manufactures from it have been developed.. The creation of such production allowed to refuse completely from export of Swedish powders and also to create first in USSR accumulator iron powders for alkaline accumulator.
In the field of industrial heating the theory of radiant heat exchange in furnaces under no uniform temperature along the height of gas flow have been elaborated and to pioneer the use of this method (prof. N. Zakharikov). The specialists of the Institute proposed and elaborated the method of indirect radiate heating of metal in the metallurgical and mechanical engineering furnaces and burner line for it realization. Mentioned method provides 25% fuel economy on metal heating, promotes it loss saving with oxidation, increases productivity of furnaces and widely introduced at the metallurgical enterprises of Ukraine, UIS countries and also in Hungary, Bulgaria, Algeria (prof. A. Erinov, prof. B. Soroka).
In the field of gas processing and transport under the direction of professor A. Klimenko have been created one- and three-cascade refrigeration cycles for natural gas liquefaction. Such cycles became the classic of refrigerating technique and used on designing liquefaction gas plants in Algeria. Also have been started investigations in the field of thermodynamics of hydrocarbons, gases liquefaction and separation, efficiency of gas-transport systems, the gas pipe-lines pressure drop utilization and others. The horizontal cassette absorbers for natural gas separation, drying and treating before pipelining have been developed with the Institute assistance and at present time such absorbers by productivity till 40 millions m3/day are processing all natural gas for export from Ukraine. Program system for gas-transport system simulating have been developed and widely used on designing of main gas pipelines and gas stream direction in the uniform gas-transport system. Data base and machine technique for hydrocarbons processing calculation and also one from the best in the world program for thermodynamic properties calculation have been created.
Important developments have been carried out on the basis of fuel and mineral processing researches in the field of technologies and equipment works for carbon sorbents production in the furnaces with fluidized bed. It was developed also technology and equipment for mineral materials granulation and firing in fluidized bed, technologies of materials production for building and other sectors of industry. Also have not world analogues developed methods and equipment for submerged gas fuel combustion in mineral melts for heat-insulation materials production.
Active research and development in low-temperature plasmawere carried out with the end of 60-ies in the context research of so-called electrical and gas burners (later called as plasma torches on the products of gas combustion). Studies have been conducted of the thermodynamic properties and mass transfer in an electric discharge in the products of natural gas combustion. The installation of thermal spraying coatings was developed and widely implemented on this base that does not have analogues in the world. Gas-air mixture is used in this installation instead of inert gases or hydrogen. To obtain high purity disperse materials with a high temperature melting point, the high-frequency plasma torches was used. Since 2002 are fulfilled intensive physical investigations and mathematical modeling of the arc and glow discharges plasma as well as is developed the technology of their using for recycling hazardous waste, the production of alternative gaseous fuels, and surface modification of machine parts.
Researches in the field of ecology based on the study of nitrogen oxides formation under natural gas combustion in the power plants. The theory and methods for nitrogen oxides formation neutralization such as combustion products recirculation, two-stage gas combustion, zone regulation of heat boiler capacity have been developed and introduced at the many power plants and heating boiler houses (prof. I.Sigal). In the Institute are carrying out researches in the field of energy-ecology for nitrogen oxides formation conditions definitions under natural gas combustion. On the basis of performed researches have bee pioneered scientific generalizations and recommendations for low-emissions combustion systems creation (prof. B.Soroka).
The Institute publishes scientific and technical magazine Energy Technologies and Re-sources Saving illustrating a wide range of problems, including resources and their efficient use, state of environment, energy-saving and resources-economy technologies in industry, technology for all kinds of waste recovery and treatment, biotechnology, etc.
The Institute has a research library with 110 000 printed materials.
Specialized Academic Council for theses defending for Doctor’s and Candidate’s degree in the speciality “Engineering thermal physics and industrial heat-and-power engineering” is functioned.